Pros and Cons of Preserving Lotion with Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Dehydroacetate?

I am formulating an O/W body lotion with a target pH of 5.4 and shelf life of 18 months.  I am considering using Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Dehydroacetate (INCI: Aqua, Sodium Benzoate, Sodium Dehydroacetate; Brand Name ISCA's Aquaguard 9093) as the preservation system.

What are the pros and cons of using Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Dehydroacetate as the preservation system for this type of body lotion?  Are there any other preservatives that could be used in addition to Aquaguard 9093 to fortify and improve the action of its weaker antibacterial and anti-mold characteristics?

Any thoughts, comments and suggestions would be greatly appreciated.  Thanks.  

Comments

  • BelassiBelassi Member, PCF student
    edited July 2018
    I had poor results (destabilisation of perfectly good formulations) when I tested dehydroacetic acid. I have no idea whether the sodium salt will do the same, but I imagine it dissociates in water to dehydroacetic acid.
    Sodium benzoate is mainly anti-fungal but it will be ineffective at your required pH with only about 8% effectiveness. Therefore I think this is a pretty poor choice on both counts.
    I would use either KEM NAT or Spectragard, they are both excellent, I've been using Spectrastat for years and have never had a failure at 0.7% 
    Cosmetic Brand Creation. Concept to name to IMPI search to logo and brand registration. In-house graphic design inc. Pantone specs. Cosmetic label and box design & graphics.
  • Which preservative system do you suspect may have a more effective broad spectrum action while maintaining lotion stability in an O/W leave-on body lotion (target pH range 5.4 - 5.6, 18 month shelf life) between the Akema Fine Chemicals' preservative product brands KEM NAT (Benzyl Alcohol, Glyceryl Caprylate, Glyceryl Undecylenate) or KEM NAT β (Benzyl Alcohol, Glyceryl Caprylate, Benzoic Acid, Propanediol)?

    Thanks!
  • PerryPerry Administrator, Professional Chemist
    Cons:
    +You have to formulate at a pH below 5.0. 
    +Benzoates can be allergens. https://www.the-dermatologist.com/content/update-benzoates
    +They can destabilize emulsions
    +Less reliable than parabens

    Pros:
    +Can claim paraben free.

    IMO - the cons outweigh any pros.

  • DtdangDtdang Member
    I just read about sodium levulinate that is good preserve and also good for skin. It is similar to bees using it to protect its nest.

  • MicroformulationMicroformulation Member, Professional Chemist
    Sodium Levulinate is not a great preservative for a Beginner. Walk first.
    markfuller@microformulation.com Microformulation.com Microformulation Cosmetic Consulting provides Custom Formulations for both large Commercial accounts as well as smaller entrepreneurs. We can provide Naturally compliant Formulations under the NSF, NPA, Whole Foods and USDA Organic Certifications. BS.Pharm Albany College of Pharmacy, Union University.
  • DtdangDtdang Member
    Thanks. Can you explain more details why? Thanks in advance
  • MicroformulationMicroformulation Member, Professional Chemist
    It requires a overall hurdle approach and is tricky to use. It is very much cGMP compliant. It is not a starting preservative.
    markfuller@microformulation.com Microformulation.com Microformulation Cosmetic Consulting provides Custom Formulations for both large Commercial accounts as well as smaller entrepreneurs. We can provide Naturally compliant Formulations under the NSF, NPA, Whole Foods and USDA Organic Certifications. BS.Pharm Albany College of Pharmacy, Union University.
  • GuntherGunther Member
    edited July 2018
    In this benzoate vs methylparaben head-to-head study

    ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF THE METHYLPARABEN AND BENZOATE SODIUM AGAINST SELECTED STANDARD MICROORGANISMS, CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES IN VITRO

    You can see in Table 1 that Sodium benzoate requires high concentrations, sometimes well beyond those allowed in cosmetics or foodstuff, to properly preserve the product.

    i.e. in S. aureus (Clinical) it needs 10 exp 1 =10 mg/ml = 1%

    Compare this to Table 2 where the highest methylparaben concentration needed was 10 exp -3 = 0.001 mg/ml  = 0.0001%


    On the bright side, a Sodium benzoate Pro is that it easily dissolves in water, unlike parabens.
    I hope to conduct Parabens + Sodium hydroxide tests results by the next week
    https://chemistscorner.com/cosmeticsciencetalk/discussion/4485/has-anyone-reacted-parabens-with-sodium-hydroxide-to-make-paraben-sodium-salts
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